1045

1045 is a medium tensile steel that is supplied normalized or hot rolled. Kloeckner Metals routinely supplies 1045 across our 40+ branches nationwide.

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General Info About 1045

1045 steel is a common steel grade because of its combination of higher strength, moderate weldability, and good impact properties. Combined with its high value, you will find 1045 across a wide range of applications.

  • Advantages/Disadvantages

    AISI 1045 steel is characterized by good weldability, good machinability, and high strength and impact properties in either the normalized or hot-rolled condition. Because 1045’s chemical composition doesn’t include suitable alloying elements, it does not respond to nitriding.

  • Industries

    1045 is most commonly found in the automotive, construction, and agriculture industries.

  • Applications

    AISI 1045 is widely used for all industrial applications that require higher wear resistance and strength.  Typical applications include gears, pins, rams, shafts, sockets, rolls, axles, spindles, worms, ratchets, light gears, bolts, crankshafts, guide rods, connecting rods, hydraulic clamps, crankshafts, studs, and more.

  • Machining

    1045 is considered to have good machinability in either the hot rolled or normalized state. Machine manufacturers may recommend tapping, broaching, drilling, milling, turning, or sawing using suitable tool types, feeds, and speeds to machine 1045.

  • Welding

    1045 is characterized by good weldability when normalized or hot rolled. Welding 1045 steel when it is through-, induction-, or flame-hardened, or when tempered, is not recommended. Welding 1045 is recommending under the following conditions:

    • The workpiece has been pre-heated to 200°C–300°C (392°F – 572°F);
    • The temperature remains constant throughout the welding
    • The piece is cooled slowly with either sand or ashes
    • The piece is stress-relieved between 550°C and 660°C (1022°F – 1220°F)
  • Heat Treatment

    AISI 1045 can be forged, annealed, normalized, stress-relieved, hardened, and tempered – each of which is explained in more detail below:

    • Forging – to forget 1045, first heat it to 850°C – 1250°C (1562°F – 2282°F) and hold until the temperature is uniform. Afterward, cool in a furnace.
    • Annealing – to anneal 1045, first heat it to 800°C – 850°C (1472°F – 1562°F) and hold until the temperature is uniform. Afterward, cool in a furnace.
    • Normalizing – to normalize 1045, first heat it to 870°C – 920°C (1598°F-1688°F) and hold until the temperature is uniform. Afterward, soak it for 10 – 15 minutes and cool it in still air.
    • Stress-Relieving – to stress-relieve 1045, first teat to 550°C – 660°C (1022°F – 1220°F) and hold it until the temperature is uniform. Afterward, soak it for 1 hour per section of 25mm and cool in still air.
    • Hardening – 1045 is considered to have low through-hardening capability. Only sections of 60mm are recommended for tempering and through-hardening. But, when hot rolled or normalized, it can be flame- or induction-hardened to achieve a surface hardness of Rc 54 – 60. To harden 1045, first heat it to 820°C – 850°C (1508°F – 1562°F) and hold it until the temperature is uniform. Afterward, soak it for 10 – 15 minutes per section of 25mm and quench it in water or brine.
    • Tempering – to temper 1045, first re-heat it to 400°C – 650°C (752°F – 1202°F) as required and afterward hold it until the temperature is uniform. Then, soak it for 1 hour per section of 25mm and cool it in still air.

    Learn more about 4 types of heat treatment that steel can undergo.

Chemical Properties

CFeMnPS
0.420 - 0.50%98.51 - 98.98%0.60 - 0.90%≤ 0.040%≤ 0.050%

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties
MetricImperial
Tensile Strength, Ultimate565 MPa81,900 PSI
Tensile Strength, Yield310 MPa45,000 PSI
Elongation at Break (in 50 mm)16.0%16.0%
Modulus of Elasticity200 GPa29,000 KSI
Bulk Modulus (Typical for Steel)140 GPa20,300 KSI
Poissons Ratio0.2900.290
Shear Modulus80 GPa11,600 KSI
Hardness, Brinell163163

Frequently Asked Questions About 1045

  • What are 1045 steel properties?

    ANSWER:

    1045 has a typical tensile strength between 570 and 700 Mpa and a typical Brinell hardness between 170 and 210 in either the hot rolled or normalized condition.

  • Can 1045 steel be heat treated?

    ANSWER:

    While 1045 can be hardened by flame or induction methods, it’s not recommended for other treatments like carburizing or cyaniding.

  • What is the difference between 1018 and 1045 steel?

    ANSWER:

    1045 is stronger than 1018 thanks to its higher carbon content and tensile strength. The drawback to its higher carbon content is that it’s not as easy to weld. 1045 is usually selected over 1018 wherever higher strength is required, for example in automotive transmission parts.

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